Sunday, May 24, 2020

Analysis Of The Stock Market Supported by The Concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2922 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Analytical essay Level High school Did you like this example? Introduction: From the last several decades the efficiency of stock market has been the sole purpose of research studies. As a result, several theories have been introduced and implemented in relation to principally how the competition in the stock market will force the known information into the prices of securities. The knowledge of information on a variety of securities that are traded in the market is one of the major factors in influencing the movements of stock market. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Analysis Of The Stock Market Supported by The Concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis" essay for you Create order In the stock market, a securities price tends to move rise and fall depending mainly on the availability of the information. The stock prices in the efficient market correspond to available information and therefore register any rise or fall mainly when recent and unpredictable information is available. The up and down in the security prices largely depends upon the advantages and disadvantages associated with the available information and to what extent it will affect the companys performance which is represented by the security. As it is very difficult to tell whether the information available is useful or not, in the same way it is quite impossible to make predictions about the trend of the stock market, such that whether there will be an upward or downward trend in the near future by using the available information. In the financial market it is not mandatory that all professionals related to market always possess the information about the securities and have skills to evaluate t his information for their gain. The only thing the efficient market requires is that few individuals must have the information about securities and as a result of the information supplied by them, the whole market must be well informed and benefitted. Hence the available information plays an important role in determining the efficiency of the stock market. By focussing on the above idea, the concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis has been developed and became one of the most concentrated and debatable topic among professionals and people related to finance and stock market studies. RESEARCH AIM: The main aim of my research is to analyse the efficiency of stock market supported by the concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis. It also aims to depict the impact of the Efficient Market Hypothesis on security trading by reviewing the available literature. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: My research aims to answer the following questions: To what extent the available information, according to the concept of Efficient Market Theory, affects the security trading in stock market. What is insider trading and its impact on the efficiency of stock market. What are the various types of anomalies associated with the stock market and their effect on the stock market efficiency. LITERATURE REVIEW: In this part of my research paper I will re-examine the existing literature on the anomalies and the efficiency of the stock market. An efficient market is defined as a market where there are large numbers of rational, profit-maximizers actively competing, with each trying to predict future market values of individual securities, and where important current information is almost freely available to all participants. In an efficient market, competition among the many intelligent participants leads to a situation where, at any point in time, actual prices of individual securities already reflect the effects of information based both on events that have already occurred and on events which, as of now, the market expects to take place in the future. In other words, in an efficient market at any point in time the actual price of a individual securities already reflect the effects of information based both on events that have already occurred and on events which, as of now, the market expects to take place in the future. In other words, in an efficient market at any point in time the actual price of a security will be a good estimate of its intrinsic value.(Eugene F. Fama 1965) According to the Efficient Market Hypothesis, given by Fama, the ups and downs in the prices of securities in the financial market totally reflect known information at a specified period of time. In other words, Efficient Market Hypothesis states that the trading of securities by the individuals is always carried out purely based on the assumption that securities worth are always more or less than the price offer by market. Whereas, trading of securities trying to outperform the stock market will be luck instead of professional skills if current prices fully reflect all available information as well as stock markets are efficient. According to this hypothesis if new information is revealed about a firm it will be incorporated into the share price rapidly and rationally, with respect to the direction of the share price movement and the size of that movement. (Elearn -NetTel) . Efficiency is an unclear word in itself so for more clarification, in my dissertation, I will describe all types of efficiencies: operational, allocation and pricing. I will also give full detail on levels of market efficiency : weak-form efficiency, semi-strong form efficiency and strong-form efficiency. According Random walk theory , there are no trends and format that are being followed by the prices of securities in stock market. There is another fact given by this theory which says that the prices of securities in the past can not be useful for future predictions and fluctuation in prices. The Efficient Market Hypothesis and anomalies related to the stock market developed by the researchers always contrasts with each other. The search for anomalies is effectively the search for systems or patterns that can be used to outperform passive and/or buy-and-hold strategies. (Invest Home) . With the invention of any anomaly, there is always a kind of exploitation by the investors of the anomalies discovered in order to increase their profit. This practice make the anomaly disappear with the passage of time. There are so many internal and external factors of the entities that affects the operations of stock market and those factors are often known as Anomalies which plays an important role in over performing or under performing the operations of the stock market by taking into consideration the fact that these anomalies have good or bad effect on the prices of stocks and entities. There are different types of anomalies and some of the anomalies are discussed. Fundamental Anomalies: First type of anomaly is fundamental anomaly which basically depends upon the price of the stock and on the past performance of the entity due to which stock prices rises or fall. Several anomalies of these kinds exist related to the growth, present value and profitability of the companies concerned. Under fundamental anomaly, there exist a most historical and famous anomaly named Value investing and is regarded as the most appropriate strategy for investment purposes. These anomalies depend on the stock value and companys performance based on which the stock prices go up or down. A technique used is to divide the given index into high price and low price to book value stocks. The low price to book concept was developed by Eugene Fama and Keneth French favouring the hypothesis that lower risk is attached to value stocks whereas the stocks with growth are attached with higher risk. According to another anomaly named as low price to sales, stocks with low price to sales ratio perform better then high price to sales ratio. According to James P. O Shaughnesey, prices are the only strongest determinant of excessive return. There are several studies which advocates that stocks having low P/E ratio always perform better in the market as compared to stocks with high P/E ratios. In the same manner, the stocks with high dividend yield are better performers than stocks with low dividend yields. There are some other stocks named as neglected stock and are chosen by those with the contrarian strategy. A study was conducted by F.M DeBondtand Richard Thaler on 35 best and worst performer stocks between 1932 and 1977 in New York Stock Exchange and came out with the result that the performance of best performer stocks in the stock exchange falls whereas the stocks with bad performance in the past showed better results when compared to the results of the same stock in the past. Technical Anomalies: Another types of anomalies in which past prices and statistics are used to predict the prices of securities are known as technical anomalies. The techniques used in these types of anomalies include strategies related to support and resistance, moving averages and strength. Some researchers are against the method of technical analysis and say that the investors are hardly benefitted from these technical analysis techniques where as some researchers argue that there is enough evidence and facts that are sufficient to say that the technical analysis method is favourable for the investors. According to technical analysts, the selling of stocks is influenced by the resistance level whereas the buying is influenced at the support level. A signal to sell the stock is developed in case the support level is penetrated by the price whereas a signal to buy the stock is produced in case price penetrated the resistance level. According to the conclusion made by William Brock, Josef Lakonishok, and Blake LeBaron, the outcomes are reliable with technical rules having forecasting power. But at the same time the cost related to transaction must be taken into account before implementing such concepts and strategies. Another conclusion given by them says that the stock returns generating is more complicated and different process as compared to the results obtained by conducting different studies and researches using various linear models. Calendar Anomalies: Calendar anomaly is another type of anomaly in which various effects are included. In January effect, general and small stocks perform abnormally better in the month of January. Philippe Jorion and Robert Haugen say that, the January effect is, perhaps the best-known example of anomalous behaviour in security markets throughout the world. An interesting fact about January effect is that it lasted for nearly two decades whereas any anomaly hardly survive as traders start taking advantage of the anomalies which results in vanishing of anomaly. Another effect named Turn of the Month was founded by Chris R. Hensel and William T. Ziemba, according to which, in between period 1928 to 1993, the returns for the turn of the month performed well and considerably greater than normal performance. According to study, those investors who make regular purchases may be benefitted if they make schedule to do the purchasing at the end and prior to the starting of next month. In addition to these eff ects another effect is known as Monday effect and is considered to be the worst day in stock market if investments are made on this day. According to study conducted by Lawrence Harris, the week end effect occurs during first 45 minutes of buying and selling whereas prices shows upward trend during the first 45 minutes of trading on all other days. This kind of anomaly may occur due to moods and behaviour of people after weekend holidays. Other Anomalies There are certain other facts that are responsible for affecting the operations of stock market. The size effect, announcement based effect, IPOs, Stock buybacks, insider transactions and S and P game. According to Fama and French (1992), the book to market ratio as well as the size capture the cross-sectional variation of average stock returns in NYSE, and Nsdaq securities. A complete investigation of book to market was provided by Tim Loughran in relation to dimensions of firm size, exchange listings etc and experimental findings of French and Fama are basically forwarded by two features of the data which includes relatively low returns on small, new and growing stocks. Srinivas Nippani, Augustine C. Arize study three main US corporate bond market indices by taking into account calendar based anomalies between the years 1982-2002. In the analysis, the whole bond market as well as two broad classes of industries namely industrials and utilities were taken into account. The stud y find the mixed response for the weekend effect in the overall bond index and industrial index whereas very less response to utilities index. The findings showed definite proof of January effect on the bond market. RESEARCH METHOD AND DATA: Data Collection Methods: The general idea of business research is that it is concerned with collection of data, making questionnaires and then analysing and evaluating the collected data. In addition to this, the identification of problem and the approach needed to solve the problem is also important. (Ghauri et al., 1995). Data sources are often referred to as the carriers of data information. Basically data sources are divided into two categories namely primary data and secondary data. Primary data is concerned with the interviews and observations collected while conducting research project where as, secondary data is collected by others and academic and non academic sources are included in this type of data. In my topic of research which is to study the efficiency of stock market, I want to use the Desk method that is secondary data collection method. This includes the gathering of information from sources like books, journals related to my topic of research, and from electronic media like internet w hich is one of the major sources of information. These all sources of information will be helpful for the accomplishment of my research. DATA SOURCES: As I have already describe that I will use secondary method in my dissertation so I have to search a lot for this topic and for this search my main resource is FBES (Faculty of Business, Environment and Society) which provides the best online business information services which is also including the digital management library. Some of the main sources (journal databases) for my research area are given below: EBSCO Business Source. Business Source Premiere. Emerald. Science Direct. NetLibrary. Overall these cover hundreds of journals, and give access to up to a million journal articles. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: While reviewing all the information from available literature on efficient market hypothesis, operations of stock market, price fluctuations and the anomalies of stock market, I have come to the conclusion that the following outcomes could be possible and predictable from my research, If the stock market is efficient then no information can play any role in making any change towards the performance of stock market. The efficient market hypothesis is expected to take any of the following forms which are weak, semi-strong and strong which purely depends upon the availability, and trueness of the past and present information about the stock concerned in the stock market. The anomalies like technical anomalies could be of great help to the researchers and analysts to predict the changing trend in the prices of stocks in the stock market but the transaction cost is the cause of concern while using such technical method. There are some other stock market anomalies which purely depend upon the internal and external factors of the entity and may result in fluctuations in the stock market. The anomalies related to stock market exist for short period of time but function against the concept of efficient market hypothesis and in my research I will find out the facts relating to the vibrations in the stock market as a result of these anomalies. LIMITATIONS AND EXPECTED DIFFICULTIES: While conducting my research I have to face certain difficulties and limitations which may occur during the course of my research. As my research involves the collection of secondary data, I have to be quite aware of the limitations that may arise due to the nature of data. Some of the limitations that are possible are as follows It could be possible that the theory and data we collected for our research is unclear and is not helpful for the companies in their decision making. It is important to check the source of the information as it could be wrong and misleading. It is possible that the theory is quite old for studies and research purposes in todays rapidly developing world. The theory may not be fit for application due to development of new and technological methods and techniques used for the analysis. REFERENCES: Chris R. Hensel and William T. Ziemba (1996)Investment Results from Exploiting Turn-of-the-Month Effects, Journal of Portfolio Management 22, 17-23 Elearn NetTel Financial Analysis Revised: Session 1: Market Efficiency [Online] Available From: https://cbdd.wsu.edu/kewlcontent/cdoutput/TR505r/page4.htm Eugene Fama and Kenneth R. French (1992)The Cross-section of Expected Stock Returns, The Journal of Finance 47, 427-465. Eugene F. Fama (1995) Random Walks in Stock Market Prices, Financial Analysts Journal 21, 55-59. Ghauri, P., Gronhaug K and Kristianslund I., (1995) Research methods in business studies a practical guide Hempstead: Prentice Hall Investor Home Historical Stock Market Anomolies [Online] Available From: lt;https://www.investorhome.com/anomaly.htm James P. OShaughnessy (1998) 2nd edn. What Works on Wall Street: A Guide to the Best-Performing Investment Strategies of All Time. New York: McGraw Hills Lawrence Harris (1986) A Transaction Data Study of Weekly and Intradaily Patterns in Stock Returns, Journal of Financial Economics 16, 99-117 Loughran Tim (1997)Book-to-Market across firm Size, Exchange, and seasonality: Is There an Effect? Journal of Finance Quantitative Analysis 32, 249-268 Marc R. Reinganum (1997) The Size Effect: Evidence and Potential Explanations, Investing in Small-Cap and Microcap Securities, Association for Investment Management and Research, 1997. Robert Haugen and Philippe Jorion, (1996)The January Effect: Still There after All These Years, Financial Analysts Journal, January-February 1996. Srinivas Nippani and Anita K. Pennathur (2004) Day-of-the-week effects in commercial paper yield rates. Quaterly Review of economics Finance 44, 508-520 Werner F.M. DeBondtand Richard Thaler (1985)Does the Stock Market Overreact? The Journal of Finance 40, 793-805.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Construction Problem Question - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1570 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Building Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Introduction The land of Campa Cola compound buildings owned BMC and it gave to leased to company Pure Drinks ltd, company sold their development rights to the land to three builders to construct homes. But builders, during the period of construction which is 1984, constructed around 35 more floors, which was more than BMC approved for residential purpose. During construction, authorities issued notices for fine and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"to stop construction workà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Construction Problem Question" essay for you Create order Builders paid their fine and resumed work they were under the impression that violation will be regularised. But they did not get Occupation Certificate from BMC. Despite, builders were illegally sold constructed flats. The residents of the buildings claimed when they were buying the flats they thought they will get the occupation certificated in due course. But Supreme Court rejected their claims and held the time of purchasing residents knew the construction was illegally[1]. Issues Whether flat owner should be punished for builderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s act? Whether Judiciary has a power to grant mercy for demolition? Whether illegal construction should have been regularizing? Judicial Interpretation In this paper researcher giving our own opinion with the help of judgment given by Chief Justice Truepenny in the case of The Speluncean Explorers[2]. In campa cola case court held that illegality of construction cannot be propagated, i.e. illegal construction must go. For example, when judicial system understands the concept of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“illegitimate childà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , before that there was no term for those circumstances but after when they recognized the right term. The logic behind that is if two unmarried people voluntarily had sexual relationship and if a child born in that is called as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“illegitimate childà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , reason that his parents doesnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t have legitimate relationship with each other. But the point is innocent child should be punish for his parentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s act, but he had to suffer all through his life even where there was no involvement of child. The main lawbreakers are his parent s not him, why should he punished in the place of his parents act, i.e. judicial system recognized à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“illegitimate childà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  so that he can use his rights as same as legitimate child. If same logic we apply in campa cola case à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“victims (owner of flats)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  are going to suffer, where there was not fully involvement of them, at the time of committing the offence. Builders are the main law breaker in this case yet people who are living there for more than 25 years have to suffer all the consequences. In big cities it is very common that builders constructs illegal building or flats and after selling those they went off and people who bought it has to suffer all penalties. According to Chief Justice Truepenny in explorer case[3], he said legal rules are definite or clear cut in statues, and only court can give you definition of the legal defence for that specific rule. Cases which supports the judgment of Campa Cola case In Frien ds colony vs. State of Orissa case[4], court observed, builders have failed to perform their duty to follow original sanction planned, unwary purchaser in search of roof of their head, bought flats from builders, subsequently when they got to know about illegality of construction, they face the consequences. The builder filled their pocket and walk away but the honest people have to face all penalties for builderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s wrongful act. In these matter local authorities also failed to perform their duty, they have engineers and police inspectors to discontinue the illegal construction, but they also failed to perform duty. They should have inspected the area of campa cola where authority clearly gave order to stop construction. The municipal rules are made for welfare of the people to provide all basic needs from government, like water, electricity etc. it is governmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s duty to think about for innocent and unwary buyers who are the victim of illegal act[5 ]. In case of Royal Paradise Hotel case[6], court said, if construction work had been made illegally even after notice has been issued, no authorities can regularize the construction. In further case of Dipak Kumar vs. Kolkata municipal corp., where court observed that illegal and unauthorised construction not only violates the municipal laws but also constitutional and fundamental rights of other persons. State must take an action against builders instead of innocent people; also state should take penalties or compensation for innocent people. Important facts of case In 1983, builder secured the permission from the chief minister of state raise the height of 60 feet. Revised plans submitted for construct more floors on every building are rejected by planned authority in 1984. Notwithstanding, builders resumed work, therefore Executive Engineer issued a notice regarding of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"stop constructionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ under section 354A 1888 act, which says that if the needful is not done, construction will be forcibly removed[7]. Therefore, after issued notice builderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s submitted a new construction plan in 1985, but authority refused to give permission on the basis of the construction is violating the sanctioned plan, thereupon again à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"stop workà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ notice had been issued. In 1994 engineer, Shri Jayant Tipnis submitted another amended plans, but again Deputy Chief Engineer rejected the new plans[8]. Number of occasionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s builderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s has been informed to stop construction, but every time they refused to follow it. During this course many purchaser were came for buying flats and agreement made between them for purchasing. Each agreement it was mentioned builders had submitted an amended plans for sanction and buyers has been inspected for every document. Although, the members of the societies were knows at the time of purchasing that new planed had not been sanctioned and permission for occupation certificate had not been issued by government authorities, subsequently housing societyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s member started litigation under the impression they will permitted the certificate by authority and court will regularize the building, but the High Court of Maharashtra, gave an order in favour of BMC, said that illegal construction must go, court rejected all the arguments of society and held BMC action is legally right. Researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s view In researcher view residents also have voluntarily participated in this wrongful act, as we discussed above builderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s amended proposal was not sanctioned by competent authority, and original plan was raise only up to 60 feet height, which developers or builderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s refused to follow and documents of building scrutinized by residents where it was mentioned the new plan of construction had been not sanctioned, even though people were buying the flats under the impression that building will be regularize by authority as had been going for years. They will receive the occupational certificate and BMC will regularize the building, but it didnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t happened, therefore, BMC refused to give water supply and when members of society went to court in 2005 for water connection, court refused to give permission in favour of members, court gave an decision in favour of BMC, after 30 years demolition of building is morally wrong but legally right. Hypothetical Judgement and its effects on parties If we talk about for consequences after giving order for both sides, suppose the result will be in the favour of BMC, then BMC have to demolish the building, therefore people or residents become homeless, while they will suffer the wealth crisis where they have no place to stay, there is no roof on their heads. Their homes have been taken from authority where these homeless people stayed more than 25 years. In future every other person wi ll learn from this case and be careful at the time of purchasing flats or homes, thus in this way violation of such laws accordingly decreasing, further builders also be cautious for rules and regulation. Furthermore, on same logic suppose if court gives an order in favour of residents, then consequences will be positive and morally accurate in side of society. Residents just have to pay compensation for violating the law, their situations are quite well but in future again such type of case arrives then again judiciary have to think in a naturalistic way, which supports violation of such laws. Again, in big cities where such problems are very common, builders will construct the more illegal construction and sell to buyers. It would be reward for builders to fill their pockets. From researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s view, Judiciary doesnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t have any rules to prevent residents for being a victim in this case; further judiciary only works on the written rules in stat ue, which is violated by builders or developers, thus people allowed taking any action builder but outside the case, but in current situation court cannot provide any compensation or mercy from judiciary, rule has been broken therefore people have to suffer the consequences. Government or Chief Executive Council is only opportunity they have to use against the decision; ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s been more than 25 years these people are living on the same building and suddenly because of the mistake of builder, they have to suffer the consequences which is morally very wrong, Government should do something for them or punish builders instead of them. Executive Council is only can grant mercy in this case. Judiciary can also provide help to these residents to give petition to Executive Council with the sign of all judges requesting to show mercy to defendants. [1] See, Anonymous, The Mumbai Campa Cola Society case, available at, https://ibnlive.in.com/news/the-mumbai-campa-cola-society-case-all-you-want-to-know/480489-3-237.html, last accessed on 12th august, 2014. [2]Supreme Court of Newgarth, 4300. [3] Ibid. [4] (2004) 8 SCC 833. [5] Ibid. [6] (2006) 7 SCC 597. [7] Section 354A of the, Mumbai Muncipal Corporation Act, 1888. [8] Campa cola case.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Relationship of Macbeth and His Wife in Act 1 Scene 5 and 7 Free Essays

The Relationship of Macbeth and his wife in Act 1 Scene 5 and 7 From the beginning of the play, the relationship between Macbeth and his wife seem to be the expected partnership in romance, however, as the play progresses, our expectations seems to change for the worst. We are informed that Macbeth desires to be King of Scotland and initially, his wife appears to be supportive of him as a wife should be but her response to this changes quite drastically as we read further on. We are first introduced to Lady Macbeth when she reads the letter which Macbeth sent to her recapping his encounter with the three witches. We will write a custom essay sample on The Relationship of Macbeth and His Wife in Act 1 Scene 5 and 7 or any similar topic only for you Order Now She now becomes aware of Macbeth’s wish to become king but she knows that his conscience inhibits him from partaking in any risky business. She uses the phrase â€Å"yet do I fear thy nature, is too full o’th’milk of human kindness†¦ † in her opening soliloquy which suggests that he is a very kind and worthy gentleman. â€Å"Thou wouldst be great, art not without ambition but without the illness should attend it. † She explains how he has the ambition to become king but lacks the boldness to become violent if needed to get the crown. This helps to show how sensible and timid Macbeth can be and why Lady Macbeth has to intervene to make the situation progress further. To our surprise, Lady Macbeth appears to be the complete opposite of her husband’s supposed character. She is determined to make sure that Macbeth becomes king under any circumstances that need to be undertaken. At the end of her soliloquy, she says â€Å"Hie thee hither, that I may pour out my spirits to thine ear, and chastise with the valour of my tongue all that impedes thee from the golden round†¦ which means that she wishes to persuade and talk him out of whatever may be keeping him from seizing the crown. This furthermore emphasizes her persistence to crown him as king and shower her with glory. Throughout this act, Lady Macbeth appears to be the stronger partner and this is reflected when she calls upon supernatural powers, much greater than her own, to make her less of a woman and more like a man. â€Å"Come, you spirits that te nd on moral thoughts, unsex me here and fill from the crown to the toe topfull of direst cruelty†¦ She has made herself aware that she has to uphold the greater position in the relationship so that their aim of getting the crown is accomplished. The audience finds this act quite shocking as females are meant to be the fairer sex. During the rest of her call to the spirits, she develops the sense of maliciousness and ruthlessness which accentuates the depth of her serious attitude. At this point in the play, the audience has reached a full understanding of Macbeth and his wife’s ambition. When Macbeth is introduced in Scene 5, he begins with â€Å"my dearest love† focusing on Lady Macbeth which shows the position he holds his wife at proving quite admirable to the audience. However, Lady Macbeth shows no mercy to the situation. King Duncan planned to go to the castle that night and wished to leave tomorrow but Lady Macbeth’s response to this was â€Å"O never shall sun that morrow see† which implies he will not be leaving tomorrow leading to the cruel suggestion of death. This line reflects her decisive character showing that she is taking the lead role here. She also teaches Macbeth the way in which he must deceive Duncan and instructs him on the arts of hypocrisy as she says â€Å"†¦ look like th’innocent flower, but be the serpent under’t. † By using this metaphor, it shows that she is manipulating Macbeth and challenges his feelings of guilt and pity for Duncan and replaces them with demeaning and spiteful emotions. Lady Macbeth encourages him to be deceitful to his loyal and trusting leader that is Duncan and the audience can begin to make the judgement that the evil spirits are now manifesting in Lady Macbeth’s heart from her evil suggestions. She knows that Macbeth hasn’t got what it takes to make this plan work so she takes the leading role by saying ‘Leave all the rest to me† at the end of Scene 5. At the beginning of Scene 7 opening with Macbeth’s soliloquy, we as the audience, really get a sense of guilt that seeps through Macbeth. This is beyond his usual attitude so this is hard for him to cope with. He knows how much he wants to be king but what frightens him the most are the consequences. He uses the metaphor â€Å"If th’assassination could trammel up the consequence and catch with his surcease, success†¦ e’d jump the life to come†¦ † which translated means â€Å"If this assassination could work like a net and prevent any consequences, he would be more than happy to risk the afterlife to do so. † Macbeth knows that Duncan is a highly respected man because of his good intentions and purely hearted nature so he is afraid if he is made known to the peopl e that he is responsible, the chances of him becoming king will be shattered. He contemplates the idea of killing Duncan and weighs up the advantages and disadvantages. The only know advantage is that he will become King. However, the disadvantages are what he already is considered to Duncan. â€Å"First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, strong both against the deed; then as his host who should against his murderer shut the door, not bear the knife myself. † This quote from Scene 7 shows that Macbeth is in conflict with what Lady Macbeth is instructing and his loyal personality is urging him not to fulfil the â€Å"horrid deed†. After considering what a â€Å"meek† leader Duncan was, we as the audience can really depict a picture as to what Macbeth was emoting. When Lady Macbeth enters, Macbeth’s final decision has now been displayed. â€Å"We will proceed no further in this business. He hath honoured me of late†¦ † He has decided to cancel the plan because of how nicely Duncan had treated him that evening. The amount of guilt was too much for him to bear so the easiest escape for him was to abort the business. To his misfortune, Lady Macbeth did not take the current news very lightly. She begins to bombard him with insults and various accusations. â€Å"Art thou afeard to be the same in thine own act and valour, as thou art in desire? Lady Macbeth begins to question him and whether he is afraid to do what he must to achieve what he desires. As she has handed herself to the powers of darkness, she speaks to him brutally by saying â€Å"Was the hope drunk wherein you dressed yourself? Hath it slept since? † suggesting that he was drunk when he made the decision to kill Duncan. He raging fury increases furthermore w hen she says â€Å"Which thou esteem’st the ornament of life, and live a coward in thine own esteem, letting I dare not wait upon I would, like the poor cat i’th’adage? calling him a coward if he doesn’t take the crown that he has always wanted to own. At this point in the play, the relationship between Lady Macbeth and his wife reaches its peak as they have a great dispute. Macbeth’s counter argument is not as furious as Lady Macbeth as he simply responds with â€Å"Prithee, peace. I dare do all that may become a man; Who dares do more is none. †He believes that he has done all that a man can do in this situation however Lady Macbeth disagrees. She believes that his definition is wrong and that he only becomes and man if he does the deed. Now Lady Macbeth is raging, she decides to use the excuse that Macbeth doesn’t love her which is the typical response for a woman to use in an argument with her partner. In addition to this, to emphasize the depth of evil in her she creates a vivid inhuman image in the audience’s mind â€Å"I have given such and know how tender ‘tis to love the babe that milks me: I would, while it was smiling in my face have plucked the nipple from my boneless gums and dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you have done to this. As she is the mother of the child, this makes the image even more disturbing as she has sworn to herself that she would have done it just as Macbeth swore he would do the rotten deed. The audience can really see the evil thoughts capturing her mind at this point as thoughts like this would not be evoked from a normal female figure. Macbeth is emotionally moved by the lengths Lady Macbeth would go to keep her word so he sees this as an opportunity to v oice his fear of failure. â€Å"If we should fail? † Lady Macbeth’s response is â€Å"We fail? But screw your courage to the sticking-place and we’ll not fail. which suggests that it is impossible for them for them to fail if he just becomes more courageous. Lady Macbeth has planned the whole murder and reveals it to Macbeth which he can find no faults for himself. At this point in the scene, there is finally some common ground between Macbeth and his wife. â€Å"When Duncan is asleep, whereto the rather shall his day’s hard journey soundly invite him, his two chamberlains will I with wine and wassail so convince that memory the warder of the brain shall be fume, and the receipt of reason a limbeck only. She plans on making the guards so drunk so that they won’t be able to remember any affairs that take place during the night. Macbeth begins to understand his wife’s plans and knows that once the blood is put onto the guard’s daggers , people will assume they are the culprits. By the end of the scene, Macbeth has decided to go ahead with the murder, using every muscle in his body to help him carry out this task. He appears to have changed his tone also as he ends with â€Å"False face must hide what the false heart doth know† which in some aspects is similar to what Lady Macbeth had originally told him to do. By the end of both scenes, the audience can really determine the flow of Macbeth and his wife’s relationship. Originally, Lady Macbeth supported Macbeth’s desire to become King of Scotland but as the play went on, the support had turned into force and she did not have a friendly approach to the situation as she called upon the dark spirits to disable any feelings of remorse as a human being should have. Macbeth knew that the deed he was influenced to pursue was cruel and would have rotten consequences but his the persuasive tone of his wife led him to change his mind and use the same words she used on him to her. It is not an ordinary relationship as the audience can see the manifestation of the dark powers between one side of the partnership which leads to other side to perform murderous tasks. How to cite The Relationship of Macbeth and His Wife in Act 1 Scene 5 and 7, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Debut Albums and Creativity free essay sample

To me, creativity is a combination of the stuff of what a person observes throughout his lifetime. It is a process that makes us combine what we know to come up with something in a way its not presented like that before. This action could be seen as genius or awkward as well from other peoples point of view, which is not really important if you ask me.What I believe is that the only important wing in generating ideas or creating some stuff is the persons achievement in accomplishing this process, regardless of other people agreeing or disagreeing with this new idea/products creativity. Moreover, I also believe that inspiration is one of the most important things during this process. In other words, who knows, maybe even the man that invented the wheel for the first time was inspired by a bug which was rolling down the hill. We will write a custom essay sample on Debut Albums and Creativity or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page On the other hand, we all are creative in one way or another but we often Just dont know how to express it. As Pablo Picasso said, Every child is an artist; the problem is staying an artist when you grow up. In my opinion, the way we are growing up is killing our creativity, which can also be observed from the beginning of our education to the lifestyle we choose to live. One of the most important speeches that I encountered about schools killing creativity was Ken Robinsons TED talk: http://bit. Y/l Backtalk other words, creativity usually has no mom in the way that we are building (or supposed to build) our lives. We begin having so much to lose to express our thoughts to others: such as our social life, Job or family. Afterwards, we begin to have self-doubts of ourselves, which are far worse than having others Judging you. Again as Sylvia Path says The worst enemy of creativity is self-doubt. Above all, If a person wants to reveal Its creativity he firstly needs to be avoiding his doubts about whether he would not be able to make It.

Friday, March 27, 2020

Web

The web-based article, titled â€Å"Strategies to succeed in the Fast Evolving Premium Beauty Market†, illuminates the various innovative strategies that are being adopted in the industry to sustain growth and competitiveness.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Web-Based Article Review: â€Å"Strategies to succeed in the Fast Evolving Premium Beauty Market† specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This paper is an attempt to review the article, with the sole objective of synthesizing salient aspects as contained in class topics and the proposed business ideas. In the proposed beauty and cosmetics business, the salient business ideas are that the business will (1) operate in a premium segment due to the prestige of the brands that will be produced, (2) use premium pricing policy for finished anti-aging products, and (3) employ the direct marketing strategy. The article under review addresses the premium segment issue by acknowledging that, to combat stiff competition from mass-produced beauty products, premium beauty players should underscore the importance of promoting the brand experience to assist in differentiating their premium brands from mass-produced brands. Some of the ways through which such differentiation could be achieved, according to the article, include providing more personalized solutions, increasing innovativeness and creativity, enhancing customer interaction in physical stores and in the digital space, and developing a superior presence across the pricing continuum so as to make products available to a broader array of customers with differing intensities of affordability. The article acknowledges that the premium cosmetics market is exceedingly consolidated and fairly stable, and that the justification for minimal movement in industry consolidation is premised on the fact that competition has become more and more time consuming, especially after the appearance of mas s-produced beauty brands. Consequently, innovation is critical in the premium beauty market segment not only to provide manufacturers with an avenue to add substantial value to the products for the purpose of differentiating them from mass-produced products, but also to continually attract and retain customers through dedicated product innovation.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the proposed business, it should be recalled that the anti-aging products will be made using active and natural ingredients, and new technologies will be employed to enhance product outcomes and user experiences. The article introduces a strategic direction for the beauty industry by arguing that players in the premium beauty industry should be dedicated to developing few strong brands not only to adequately satisfy the needs and expectations of customers, but also to attain economies of scale in leveraging product equity across manifold competitive groupings. Additionally, the article is categorical that product innovation should form an essential component in the development of a business strategy aimed at driving and sustaining value growth, and that the concept is of great importance in the premium beauty segment as it satisfies customer demand and rationalizes the premium price points these products carry. As suggested in the article, major players have competed on product innovation to broaden and maintain their customer base during periods of economic upheavals and financial recessions, with the major trends supporting the concept consisting of ‘high-tech efficacy, targeted innovation, category cross-over, as well as exceptionality and complexity.’ Some of these trends have been included in the proposed business (e.g., high-tech efficacy, exceptionality and complexity), but it is imperative to include the others, with the view to attracting new customers and retaining existing ones. Overall, this article is an eye opener for players wishing to start a business in the premium beauty segment. The article has elaborated why innovation is critical in the beauty industry, not mentioning that several strategies to attract and retain customers have been illuminated. The article’s dedication to expound on product innovation, its trends and benefits in the premium beauty industry qualifies it as a must-read for people wishing to enter this market.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Web-Based Article Review: â€Å"Strategies to succeed in the Fast Evolving Premium Beauty Market† specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay on Web-Based Article Review: â€Å"Strategies to succeed in the Fast Evolving Premium Beauty Market† was written and submitted by user Taraji Whitfield to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. Web Table of Contents Introduction Benefits of BP automation The New Reservation Process Leavitt Diamond Business Intelligence Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Hotel business follows the principles of demand and supply. The demand for services or reservation must be correlated with the supply of services. The services supplied are products of the business process that exists in the organization. With the changes in IT infrastructure, hotel managements can be automated to reduce the challenges faced by clients.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Web-Based Automation System specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After a long travel time, a client will require a self-check in and check out system to reduce his or her worries. The business strategy of an organization influences the growth of the organization. The function of each department in the organization is a collection of the organization’s business process. A business process is a collection of the daily activities or function, sales and records of an organization. The functions include sales, marketing, manufacturing, production, finance management, and human resource (Nolan 75). The collection of different functions in an organization is called the business process. The business process determines the profit generation of the organization. For example, proper documentation and record of the daily transactions in the Sunset Inn will reduce losses and increase profit. The business process aligns with the firm’s mission statement and influences growth. The advantages of a good business process include: Correlates business operations with market strategy: a change in business strategy in an organization will result in a change in the business processes. To sustain the business strategy, operations managers must align their business strategy with the objectives of the organization. A good business process will improve this missio n. Improve business communication: Communication increases speed in the organization. A robust communication channel will improve the efficiency of the employees, thus stabilizing the business process. Improve management and control: Business process influences the management and control of daily activities. Business procedures and transactions are explained and this eliminates operational mistakes, thus, reducing business losses. Competitive advantage: Business processes increase the sustainability and integrity of an organization. This strategy improves the competitive advantage of the organization, thus, creating more clients for the organization. Benefits of BP automation Web-based reservation improves quality of service and reduces the routine work of the front desk receptionist; it also reduces the human activities in the business processes. The manual booking and reservation procedure produces human errors while the web-based procedure is free of mistakes. The client will fl ip through the rooms to make his or her choice of reservation from any part of the world. The need for change is influenced by the challenges encountered. Sunset Inn has encountered different challenges in the delivery of quality services. Some issues include proper documentation of each transaction, loss of time due to delays, reservation cancellation, unpaid bills due to wrong documentation, and poor services. The organization tries to maintain its quality in the face of these challenges. The organization’s business process relies on manual booking systems and this procedure functions with limitations. The challenges encountered are a function of the business process model. The organization must restructure its business process model to improve its quality of services and to reduce the daily mistakes (Nolan 79).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The business process model includes management, automation, assessment and control technologies, which improves the productivity of an organization. This report proposes a web-based automation for the reservation process in Sunset Inn. The manual booking process will be replaced by automated reservation procedures. The benefit of the web-based automated reservation procedures includes: Competitive advantage: An automated Business process improves the competitive advantage of the organization. When a client utilizes simple technology to make his or her reservation, business time is reduced, thus, improving the quality of services rendered to the customer. Quality of services: The ability of an individual to order for a reservation from his or palmtops or mobile screens influences the quality of service received by the customer. A potential customer is measured by the quality of services and satisfaction he or she receives. An automated system reduces the long queues for reservation. Reservations can be booked any time and key collections are received on arrival. This reduces the hassle faced by the receptionist during busy seasons. Reduce error: An automated reservation system reduces the rate of errors in an organization. Customers document their orders using the internet or electronic channels. This will reduce the error encountered using manual book keeping procedures. Revenue generation. Each reservation done manually requires the presence of a sales receptionist. The receptionist computes each transaction for the organization. The operational cost of each transaction can be reduced when the business process it automated. This will save operational cost of the organization. Efficiency and productivity: Automated business process improves the efficiency of service delivery. For example, a customer will book his or her reservation using his or her laptop and will only need the key to the room, or food deliveries upon arrival. The flow of the business process is determined by the business process model. The New Reservation Process Web-based automated systems provide the platform for quality forecasting, and decision making. The prices of the reservation are fixed based on the market trend. The transfer from the manual book keeping to the internet requires phase implementation and management. The reservation process involves a website and its data compilation. For example, Mr. John logs on the Sunset Inn’s website, and makes an order after careful study of their room prices. The automated reservation unit acknowledges the reservation and transfers the information to the system’s data terminal. The information is processed from the processor units using the communication channels. The automated system provides acknowledgment codes and documents for each transaction; for the customer and the hotel management. The information for the transaction will be forwarded to all parties involved in the business process using a facsimile. The process trans fers the information through the facsimile. The financial processes are documented using the facsimile transactions. The information collected is documented and the bank processor terminal prepares the payment transaction for the reservation. The facsimile transmits the transaction to the customer, and the hotel management. Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Web-Based Automation System specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A reservation claim is a process of booking a hotel reservation. A web based reservation claim generates and transmits the transactions of a customer. The generated transactions and documents include; Prices of each room and rooms available A processor that organizes the customer’s information: name, phone numbers and description. The customer’s memory terminal documents the customers booking dates and any cancellation process is documented and transmitted. The claim is stored on the web server. Each transaction is forwarded to relevant units for safe keeping and documentation. When a customer declines his or her booking, the automated system notifies the client, the hotel management and relevant deductions are carried out using the hotel’s terms and agreement uploaded to the mainframe of the server (Venkatraman 73). Leavitt Diamond Each step analyzed above can be fully automated. Automation software and specialized personnel will be used for the management of the web-based automated reservation. The changes will use the four components of the Leavitt Diamond ‘ model. The model consists of people, technology, the task and the structure. The change will require fewer human resources. Web-based automation reduces the task of the front desk agent. The tasks are embedded on the server mainframe and each processor transmits relevant transactions to the interested parties. The structure of the technology reduces the workload for the receptionist, and eac h employee will adjust to new assignments and changes in job descriptions. A change in the technology of the organization will require the employment of specialized personnel. This will reduce the risk of damage of the web automated technology and the loss in revenue for the organization (Venkatraman 73). The staff crews are trained by specialized personnel to handle the change. Business Intelligence Business intelligence provides information for decision making. Business intelligence gathers information to improve the performance and management of the organization. Besides the information of the customer, information retrieved from each transaction includes: The customer’s habit High seasons and low seasons Secured transaction on each deal Market targets Private security information Customer feedback Ten suggested pieces of information includesAdvertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Customer’s habits and hobbies Service satisfaction Customer’s nationality Customer’s identification pin Customer’s description Preferred reservations Reasons for choosing the reservation Credit-card transactions Number of booked reservations Complaints The information retrieved on the customer’s habit will be used to restructure the hotel’s performance. Each unit provides quality services for the smooth running of the organization. Information of high and low seasons will improve personnel distribution during the high seasons. The management will provide standby resources during high seasons to prevent shortage of quality services. Secure transaction of each transaction is transmitted using the facsimile and the information assist security agents in tracking fraudulent transactions. Customer feedback provides the management with areas of improvement. The management will reorganize redundant units for better service delivery. The price regi me of the hotel is managed based on the number of customers received. Complaints received will be used to reorganize the organization for improvement. The number of booked reservations will aid security personnel in the organization to modify their security systems. The number of booked reservations will be used to measure the firm’s budget for each season. Conclusion The change to a web-based automation system will improve the services delivered by the Sunset Inn. It will reduce the error encountered in the organization and improve the productivity each staff. The modification will require fewer funds and will be managed with few personnel. The technology can be updated and monitored from an authorized platform, thus, reducing the interference on unauthorized users. Revenue generation will improve because each transaction will follow automated transactions. In cases of reservation cancellation, the customer is debited when the cancellation bridges the terms of the agreement. This process may be difficult to achieve using the front desk receptionist. The web-based platform will give the hotel a competitive advantage, thus, influencing growth and better services. Finally, to achieve quality service in Sunset Inn, a change from the manual booking and reservation to a web-based automated system is imminent. Works Cited Nolan, Richard. Managing the Crisis in Data Processing, Springfield: Harvard Business Review, 1979. Print. Venkatraman, Naryanan. IT Enabled Business Transformation: From Automation to Business Scope Redefinition, New York: Sloan Management Review, 1994. Print. This report on Web-Based Automation System was written and submitted by user Obi-Wan to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Orientalism and its Effects on Today’s Society essay

Orientalism and its Effects on Today’s Society essay Orientalism and its Effects on Today’s Society essay Orientalism and its Effects on Today’s Society essay  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Orientalism is a unique concept that has been widely discussed in academic literature. Orientalism can be characterized as a positive concept that highlights the role of the Orient in the life of the West (Said 203). Academic specialists involved in the study of the Orient are called Orientalists. Orientalism requires specific knowledge of people, places and civilizations (Said 203). The study of Orientalism provides an opportunity to have a better understanding of the West’s views regarding the Arab and Islamic world. As Orientalists are focused on the study of ancient traditions and customs and artistic representation of the Orient in Western world, this paper will provide much important information on the effects of Orientalism on our society (Diken et al. 26). It is necessary to take into consideration the fact that the meaning of the term â€Å"Orientalism† has b een changed. Today, it is no more a style of thought, but it is a powerful ideology that helps to assess the distinctions between East and West (Diken et al. 26). The study of oriental influences on various aspects of today’s society highlights the significance of religious concepts, namely Asian religious traditions. Thesis statement: The continuing effects that Orientalism has on today’s society include the effects on attitudes, image and knowledge reflected in different social activities, such as art, literature, music, political decisions and gender politics.The major goal of this paper is to discuss orientalism and the continuing effects that it has on today’s society. The study will be narrowed down to one country – the United States. To achieve the established goal, it is necessary to discuss a number of issues, such as the background information about Orientalism, the key definitions of the term, some facts from the history of Orientalism, and Ame rican Orientalism and its effects on American Society.Orientalism: Background Information  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In order to explore Orientalism and its effects on today’s society, it is necessary to define the meaning of Orientalism and analyze some facts from its long history. Orientalism is represented not only as Western ideology, but also as an academic discipline and as a literary motif. As a result, the concept of Orientalism is associated with prejudices (Kontje 56)Defining OrientalismOrientalism is a controversial concept that can be defined in different ways. First, the term â€Å"orientalism† can be defined as an â€Å"ideology, a set of prejudices that bolster a sense of European superiority over the East and thus implicitly or explicitly legitimate imperialism and colonialism, the exploitation of subjugated people deemed culturally or racially inferior to the dominant culture† (Kontye 56). Second, the term â€Å"orientalismâ₠¬  refers to the discipline, which involves the study of Eastern culture, religions, traditions and languages (Kontye 56). Third, the term â€Å"orientalism† is represented as a theme in literature and art (Kontye 56).Some Facts from the History of Orientalism  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Orientalism was originated as the so-called â€Å"western construction of knowledge about peoples in the Middle East and Asia† that was established in during colonialism (Merryfield Subedi 288).   Today Orientalism continues to influence various aspects of human life. The history of Orientalism is long and colorful. After the discovery of America at the end of the 15-th century, the sea route was opened to India. The development of new economic relations was marked by the development of Orientalism as a philosophical thought.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In addition, in the 19-th century the term â€Å"Orientalism† was effectively used to chara cterize the features of the genre of painting. In fact, this genre was promoted by French and British artists who described the Orient in their art works, including the themes of the Middle Eastern traditions. According to historians, the works of Orientalists embraced oriental expression and inspiration, which were reflected in the cross-cultural influences of artists (Merryfield Subedi 285). The popularity of Indian, Chinese and Japanese traditions was reflected in textiles, ceramics, furniture and unique architecture styles. Although Said managed to reinterpret these influences by developing his radical theory, the representations of the East affected social life of people living in the West (Merryfield Subedi 285).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Moreover, the effects of Orientalism had different forms depending on different cultures involved in the Orientalist influences. According to Said, the discourse of Orientalism can be described as â€Å"basically homogene ous† (Burke Prochaska 22). Said claims â€Å"Orientalism is the corporate institution for dealing with the Orient -dealing with it by making statements about it, authorizing views of it, describing it, by teaching it, settling it, ruling over it: in short, orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient† (Said 3). American Orientalism reflects Said’s claim because it is based on the idea of domination of the West and its influence on the East.The Continuing Effects that Orientalism has on today’s Society  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to researchers, Orientalism was originated in colonial period, but today it â€Å"continues to shape attitudes, images and knowledge† (Merryfield Subedi 288).   A well-known Orientalist Edward W. Said placed emphasis on the use of specific methods of teaching, which could help to â€Å"overcome orientalist thinking through contrapuntal (a te rm from music meaning characterized by counterpoint) literature and histories that create new understandings and knowledge† (Merryfield Subedi 288). As a matter of fact, the themes, which reveal Orientalism and its traditions, are persistent in today’s society. Many researchers are based on the argumentation regarding the differences between the cultural aspects of East and West (Diken Laustsen 26). One of the arguments that provide explanation to the major causes of the continuing effects that Orientalism has on today’s society is that the â€Å"relationship between the West and the Orient is not merely one of a difference between two elements within the same space† (Diken Laustsen 26). The Orient can be explained as a space which does not provide difference between the political and the social. According to researchers, â€Å"the Orient is constituted as a fantasy space that both conditions and escapes the social† (Diken Laustsen 26). In other words, the Orient is associated with human desires because fantasy produces desires.Said criticizes Western Orientalism because it reflects many trends found in Asian works of art created by Indian, Chinese, and Japanese artists and writers (Said 60). In the 20-th century, various Western cultural themes were found in Asian art and culture. Besides, Orientalism shaped cinema, theater, photography and music.The Effects of Orientalism on AttitudesOrientalism has a strong impact on literary genres in western literature. These effects are reflected in attitudes of both the reader and the author. For example, the Arabian Nights helps to explore the significance of complex relationships between men and women. According to Abdulla Al-Dabbagh, â€Å"many studies of the impact of the Arabian Nights on literature, literary criticism and literary thinking have been done†(30). Most of these studies highlight the effects of Orientalism on attitudes of readers.The Effects of Orientalism o n ImagesOrientalism has a strong impact on the images that can be found in art and literature. According to researchers, some aspects of Orientalism as the concept and practice have direct relation to analysis of the images associated with the Orient (Abdulla Al-Dabbagh 30). Many Orientalist images describe the contribution of women to social development. Based on the works of Orientalist artists, such as Henriette Browne and others, and the literary works of many authors, such as Jorge Eliot and others, it is possible to â€Å"challenge masculinist assumptions relating to the stability and homogeneity of the Orientalist gaze† (Lewis 1). It has been found that the images of women were not perceived as the images of men because of the effects of male position of Western dominance. Orientalism helped to highlight racial differences that existed in human society (Rotter 1206). The relationships between men and women were influenced by race and gender positions. Researchers state that â€Å"women’s visual and literary Orientalism† was found in the images produced by writers and artists (Lewis 1). As a matter of fact, women’s involvement in Orientalism contributed to the overall understanding of the effects of Orientalism on the images found on the works of art and literature (Lewis 1).The Effect of Orientalism on KnowledgeThe effect of Orientalism on knowledge is crucial to the understanding of some political and philosophical concepts associated with the Orient. According to Abdel Malek, one of the types of Orientalism can be characterized as â€Å"collaborating with colonial powers† (qtd. in Netton 261). Actually, Abdel Malek gives explanation to the phenomenon created by Orientalism. This phenomenon is based on gathering the proper information regarding different nations that could be dominated by other nations (Netton 261). In other words, Orientalism was found in the structure of Western sciences during the penetration of im perialism into human society (Rotter 1206). Recent studies point out to the fact that Orientalism is in crisis today because of the â€Å"rise of national liberation movements, which brought an end to the age of colonial domination† (Netton 261). As Orientalist views are considered to be the tools of colonialism, the effects of these views on knowledge are enormous.American Orientalism and its effects on American Society  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Nature of American Orientalism  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The effects of Orientalism on American society established foundation for interactions between American people and Asian people. Some researchers state that Orientalism is over, but its effects on society point out to the fact it is far from over. The debate over orientalism continues in the United States, especially after the events of 9/11. According to researchers, â€Å"in many ways it has just begun† (Burke Prochaska 1). In A merican society, Orientalism is represented as an academic discipline, which is based on philosophical views regarding the Asian culture and languages. The practice of Orientalist ideas links culture and power, providing a wide range of examples in American society associated with the philosophical thought of the Middle East (Burke Prochaska 1). According to researchers, â€Å"their special properties miraculously filter out historical context and complexity, the better to spotlight the supposedly essential cultural features of Middle Eastern culture†(Burke Prochaska 1). The concept of Orientalism in American society has been shaped by Said’s paradigms regarding the relationship between the West and the East. In general, the roots of Orientalism in the United States are associated with the attitudes, beliefs and values of the immigrants who came from Europe to North America in the late 16-th century –early 17-th century (Leong 7). Most European immigrants had their individual views about the Eastern philosophy characterizes the Eastern civilization as â€Å"more decadent, exotic, and immoral† (Leong 7). These attitudes, beliefs and values were included in the philosophies of European empires, such as France, Germany and Britain. These nations provided many justifications of the dominant positions in the global context, explaining their dominance by their more civilizing missions. In general, these Orientalist views were developed in the United States, incorporating the concept of Orientalism in different aspects of social life (Leong 7).American Orientalism was built on the philosophical thought of European Orientalism. However, European Orientalism reflected negative attitudes toward the Asian people and the Orient in general. American Orientalism â€Å"took a form specific to and supportive of the United States’ emerging role as a world-wide moral and economic force† (Leong 7). It has been found that Orientalist vi ews were very popular in the United States, reflecting not only cultural perceptions and expressions, but also religious aspects and economic issues (Rotter 1206). The Orientalist views were found in the functioning of missionaries, diplomacy, business organizations, as well as the media (Leong 7). According to researchers, the interests of missionaries, diplomacy, business organizations were marked by the role of the U.S. involvement in different religious and economic issues, while many Asian countries, such as China and Japan, lacked the proper economic and religious development, and required considerable changes through the conversion to Christianity and the growth of Capitalism (Leong 7).Orientalism and its Effects on Today’s Society essay part 2

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Communuication Ethics, and Society Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Communuication Ethics, and Society - Assignment Example One level of the debate, this is not surprising as a large section of the audience enjoy viewing shows touching on career perhaps owing to the frequently glamorized and unrealistic images (Sayre & King, 2010). Television impact on individuals can be significant, especially on individuals’ expectations and beliefs about the world. Research on TV shows such as Grey’s Anatomy indicates there are plenty of negative representations on aspects such as unprofessional behavior, gender stereotypes, and sole highlight on doctors while obscuring other professionals. There are numerous examples of unethical behaviors depicted on the shows, especially centring on topics such as confidentiality, informed consent, and misconduct (Gordon, et al., 2011). According to past research, the audience may be tempted to forecast doom for the medical profession and arrive at conclusions that doctors within the real hospital setting are likely to mimic the unethical behaviors depicted on the onscreen. The audience should be critical and skeptical of the TV shows and should not allow the shows to have significant influence on ethical issues (Sayre & King, 2010). This emanates from the perception that the audience is not merely passive consumers of media content. This does not translate to the notion that the programs should be taken as irrelevant or